When you are happy with the way your map looks, you can export it to a printable or viewable form.
The quickest way of doing this is to save what you can now see in QGIS as an image - this will allow you to print it, include it in a report, send it by email, etc.
To do this:
Project > Save as Image, select a file type in the bottom right of the dialogue, and enter a file name.
What you have created may be enough, but it is very basic - it has no title, legend, scale, north arrow etc. If you want to add all these things, you will need to use the Print Composer - this is a dedicated layout engine within QGIS which will help create a map with all the appropriate additions.
This tool takes a little getting used to - but once you have mastered it, you will be able to produce high-quality standalone maps.
Project > New Print Composer, then click
OK to auto-generate a title
Add New Map button in the toolbar, then click and drag in the canvas to create a frame for the map.
Move Item Content button in the toolbar
Export as buttons (
PDF) to create an exported view of the map, then open it to admire your work